History of Islam, Part 1 of 5: Reign of Abu Bakr

the core religious allegory of Islam starts with muhammad’s revelation in [the] caves and ends with the [death] of the fourth Successor ali almost [forty] years later It is analogous to the last suffer the crucifixion and the resurrection of Jesus [Christ] in Christianity In the lifetime [of] Muhammad his community gained the control over the arabian peninsula, and though he passed away in 632 Ad The religious Story doesn’t end there But it is continued through his four closest followers Abu Bakr Umar Uthman and Ali together they formed the rashidun which means the rightly guided ones and Together they established the first islamic state the caliphate in just 30 years the Rashidun caliphate had conquered all [of] persia Egypt Mesopotamia the Levant and even parts of the Byzantine Empire [in] Anatolia in Some ways this new state resembled a democracy The leaders were all elected by a council of representatives But the transition of power between these leaders was not an easy one the 30 years of Human drama was first documented by the Arab historian Ibn Ishaq But most of his work has been lost however before it disappeared other scholars and historians quoted from it and [summarised] from it the thing is islam emerged in literate times Historians were writing journals scholars were writing diaries and letters jurists were writing bureaucratic articles so from the [seventh] century onwards there was a rich record of Documents, and that’s why we know so many historical details One historian who used even Ishaq as his major source was the ninth century persian scholar Muhammad Ibn Jarir Al-tabari He collected many of these records and compiled a chronicle called the history of prophets and kings It was a 39 volume chronology from biblical figures to ancient empires all the way to 915 AD the historian dedicated an entire volume to a period of just 30 years of human drama and it all started with the death of a prophet welcome to Caspian report by Shirvan the moment the prophet passed away, the Muslim community also called the ummah faced a crisis The question rose who was our next leader And what was our next leader and the Ummah had simply not given this subject any Consideration before the death of Muhammad but they had to come up with something [new] The argument was that the New leader could not be a Saint because Muhammad had Specifically said that he was the last messenger of God but equally important the Next leader could not just be another [king] because the ummah was not Just another country rather the Muslim community viewed themselves as the embodiment of Islam in the hours following the death of Muhammad the 60-Year Old Abu bakr a close companion of the prophet heard rumors that the Muslims from Medina Were meeting to elect a leader of their own Abu bakr Gathered some of the other companions and crashed at the meeting he begged the Muslims from Medina to reconsider and to elect a single leader for all Muslims During his speech Abu bakr pleaded not for a prophet nor for a king, but just for one [person] To call meetings just for one person to moderate discussions And he pointed to two companions of the prophet saying choose one of these two One of the appointed companions was umar But in Bedouin arab culture it is considered unthinkable to take precedence over an elderly man. Umar came forth with tears in his eyes and argued for Abu bakr as the new leader The Decision was unanimous [Abu] bakr was voted as [the] first deputy of Muslims better known as the first halluf Nobody really knew what [the] title meant or what powers had held? So the first title holder would have to fill in those details for [now] Abu bakr succession was announced and Everyone agreed and cheered, but not everyone was there One leading candidate did not even hear the issue was being discussed Muhammad’s cousin Ali was still washing the body of the deceased Prophet when he heard [that] a new leader was elected You can see how this might have sounded Because ali thought that he was muhammad successor because he was the closest to the prophet and there were numerous reasons why Ali’s Father had actually adopted muhammad as a son which essentially made muhammad and Ali brothers But muhammad was some 30 years older than Ali and in tribal arab culture a much older brother had parental status with his siblings furthermore Ali grew up in the Household of Muhammad This meant that ali was basically like a son of muhammad at least from the shia point of view Equally important is the fact that ali was the first male to accept islam He was the one who risked taking a knife when assassins were coming from Muhammad he was there side by side with muhammad in every battle as Islam spread throughout the Peninsula and the Muslim Community Grew Muhammad kept Ali close at his side as his right-hand man in fact on the way home from his last sermon the prophet held a speech before a crowd of 70,000 to [120,000] people at a place called [al-hadeed] [coon] in which he said the following Any of you who consider me your patron should consider [Ali] your patron? Supporters of Shia islam interpret these words as muhammad appointing Ali as his heir and successor Sunni Muslims however interpret The words as muhammad urging a large audience to hold his cousin and son-in-law and high esteem and affection But perhaps the most important Factor. Why Ali was considered the heir and successor To the prophet was that Muhammad had no sons The only grandsons he had was from his daughter Fatima who was married to ali so many consider Ali’s sons as Muhammad’s grandsons but from a sunni perspective Dynastic succession was not islamic and Ali’s family ties to the prophet were exactly the kind of things they had [to] prevent from becoming an aristocracy and So when the prophet passed away ali was completely neglected He was not considered a candidate and he was not even consulted There are two main explanations for what happened next according to some sources It took ali roughly six months to concede the [election] in those months of the supporters of Abu bakr threatened the family of Ali And then one incident resulted in the miscarriage of Fatima Other sources claim that it took ali a few days to swear allegiance to Abu bakr and that the miscarriage of Fatima was an accident a dispute like this can never be solved now, but it does show that the disagreements between Abu bakr and Ali a [centrally] transformed into two different sects of Islam at the sunnis and the Shia’s In either case whether it’s six months or six days ali had conceded the election What followed shortly afterwards was that all over Arabia? the tribes and clans were seceding from their allegiance to Abu bakr and the capital Medina the tribal leaders argued that they had never pledged allegiance to Abu bakr or the umMa but only to muhammad himself and with the death of the prophet the allegiance was now void but perhaps the real underlying reason was the zakat or the charity Tax that the tribes paid to the treasury of Medina [a] Few tribal leaders even proclaimed themselves as the new prophets Abu bakr responded by establishing a new religious doctrine The idea was that if there is only one? God, then there must be only one embodiment of Islam One community one [ummah] Secession and apostasy was declared to be treason at the time. It seemed like a logical Short-term Solution but over the centuries this Declaration would gradually change Islam to a social political system, and not just a religious belief Within [a] year the secessionist Rebellion was crushed by Halide IB’n alwaleed the primary Commander and Military Advisor of Abu bakr If the Holly had regained control over Arabia and ended the first islamic Civil War also [known] as the reader [Wars] What happened next was that a series of provocations? by the neighbouring Sassanids and the byzantines resulted in an all-out war between the Rashidun caliphate Sassanid Empire and the Roman Empire which we will refer [to] as the byzantine empire the Sassanids were trying to stir up rebellion in the North Arabian regions whilst the byzantines move Troops to the border of the Holly fat with the intent to conquer the fragmented arabian region from a strategic point of [view] an invasion by either the byzantine or the Sassanid Empire was Inevitable in the long term so Holly Abu bakr decided to strike first What you have to understand here is that at the time of the arabian [peninsula] was made up of numerous? Autonomous tribes The arabs were doing a lot of trading spices cloth And other goods were transported [from] east to west from North to South So the arabs were familiar with the major trading routes and the major religions of the time but they also understood the logistics and military tactics of their two larger neighbors and equally important the kalif understood that the Sassanids and the byzantines were Exhausted from Centuries Long Warfare and so Abu bakr and his closest [advisers] and military commanders worked on a strategic campaign That within a few decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history Then one august day in the year 634 Abu bakr after taking a hot bath stepped outside his house into a blast of cold wind By nightfall [he] was running a high fever and he knew that death was near so he called the community’s top notables and Nominated umar as his successor Now umar was also a close companion of Muhammad But he was also a fierce military commander whose appearance height and temper intimidated the people around him so the council wasn’t convinced that umar was the right man to lead the Ummah a discussion unfolded and at that critical moment Ali stepped forward and Endorsed umar his words tipped the scales the [Umma] had elected their second caliph and As soon as omar took office he turned towards the military campaign that he and Abu bakr had worked on earlier of The succession crisis was over Now it was time for war and conquest And this was a Caspian report by Srivan for more information Please visit the social media pages and if you want to support Caspian report please visit the patreon site in The next Caspian report we will talk about the rise of the caliphate and the internal politics that have so greatly influenced the principles of Modern Islam So for now, thank you for watching take care and saval

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